• Plant contains a bitter principle, colombine (%); traces of an alkaloid; and a glucoside. Also contains a amorphous bitter principle, picroretine and traces of berberine.
• A study showed that the bitter extract of the stem does not contain an alkaloid.
• Leaves yielded picroretine, traces of an alkaloid, and a substance similar to glyzirrhizin.
• Bitter principle is glucosidal in nature.
• Study reported two alkaloids, tinosporine and tinosporidine. (Later studies failed to confirm these.)
• Study yielded two new diterpenes along with known compounds tinotufolin D and vitexilactone. ( 7 )
• Ethanol extract of vines yielded three new diterpenoids, 2-O-lactoylborapetoside B (1), 6′-O-lactoylborapetoside B (2), and tinocrispol A (3), and nine known diterpenoids (4–12). (see study below) ( 28 )
• Proximate analysis of stem (S) and leaves (L) yielded: protein % (L) % (S), fat % (L) % (S), carbohydrate % (L) % (S), ash % (L) % (S), moisture (L) % (S), fiber % (L) % (S). (see study below) ( 37 )
• Study of stems yielded four new furanoid diterpenes of clerodane types, Crispene A, B, C, and D, including one known furanoid diterpene glucoside, borapetoside E. ( 66 )
The disorder has been found in blacks, whites, American Indians, and Latin Americans, as well as in families from Malta, Jordan, and Pakistan. Imperato-McGinley et al. (1991) described a cluster of male pseudohermaphrodites in the Simbari Anga linguistic group in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Their studies revealed a phenotypic and biochemical profile similar to that in patients studied in the Dominican Republic, except for a greater abundance of facial and body hair. DHT is responsible for masculinization of the external genitalia of the fetus and for masculinization at puberty. The virilization at puberty in PPSH may be related to the facts that the reductase is not completely absent and that low levels of DHT are found in plasma.