Karamanos et al (2015) noted that although breast reduction mammoplasty accounts for more than 60,000 procedures annually, the literature remains sparse on outcomes. In this study the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data set was queried for the Current Procedural Terminology code 19318 from the years 2005 to 2010, with principal outcome measurements of wound complications, surgical site infections, and reoperations. A total of 2779 patients were identified with a mean age of () years and BMI of () kg/m. Tobacco use was shown to have a higher rate of reoperation (p= ) and BMI was identified as an independent risk factor for wound complications (odds ratio, , P = ). The authors also noted that patients with BMI greater than 40 kg/m were significantly more likely to develop postoperative wound complications (p = ). Karamanos et al (2015) identified their study as the largest sample on breast reduction in the literature, in which age and surgeon specialty did not correlate with negative results. In contrast, tobacco use and BMI were associated with worse breast reduction outcomes.
All individuals, whether male or female, possess both female hormones (estrogens) and male hormones (androgens). During puberty, levels of these hormones may fluctuate and rise at different levels, resulting in a temporary state in which estrogen concentration is relatively high. Studies regarding the prevalence of gynecomastia in normal adolescents have yielded widely varying results, with prevalence estimates as low as 4% and as high as 69% of adolescent boys. These differences probably result from variations in what is perceived to be normal and the different ages of boys examined in the studies.
Have you ever noticed that no matter what type of exercising you do, your chest area never seems to improve? Does your chest skin always seem to stay slack (too elastic) and suffer from looseness (laxity)? Do your breasts seem full of fatty tissue or abnormally large? Good skin elasticity is desirable since it makes for a smooth surface contour. Tight skin is generally seen in the very young and is gradually lost as we age. Even through middle age, however, we retain some elasticity. If you are not obese, the skin envelope can always shrink and adjust to a reduced profile following a male breast reduction procedure.