Finally, and this is likely the biggest and most important question, but what exactly stimulates hypertrophy? There are hypotheses out there, some of which are supported by evidence, but in my opinion, it is still inconclusive. (20) Tension on muscles themselves might be enough to stimulate hypertrophy, but when you get tension, you also get ischemia and increased metabolite build-up. The pump you get from lifting weights might contribute, but heavy weight/low rep sets tend not to elicit much of a pump, and hypertrophy has been shown to be the same as for higher rep sets. Metabolic byproduct concentration might be the main stimulator, but there isn’t much evidence examining the idea yet. At this point, we can only conclusively look at muscle growth on a large scale and say that picking things up and putting them down a lot makes muscles get bigger.
Kali’s bloated gut raises more questions as to his use of steroids. In 2007 he had an enviable tight, small waist. Cali muscle has, however, developed a distended gut, which is common among modern-day bodybuilders occasioned by the use of insulin and HGH. Most of Mr Olympia championship title holders like Jay Cutler, Dorian Yates, Phil Heath , and Ronnie Coleman developed HGH guts. The 70’s produced the bodybuilders of all time- Arnold, Franco Columbo, Frank Zane, and Luo Ferrigno, among others who did not use steroids. They had the perfect shape- a tiny waist balanced with huge muscles. After they retired, bodybuilders started using insulin and HGH, growing considerably bigger.