Epidural injections can be performed from several different approaches; these include a caudal, interlaminar, or transforaminal approach. The approach your provider chooses is based on each individual patient’s clinical presentation, the personal preference and experience of the provider performing the injection, the desired outcome, and most importantly, the risks versus benefits of performing one type of epidural over another. Clinically, the purpose of all epidural injections is to place a mixture of steroid and local anesthetic at the source of the problem to decrease inflammation causing pain, and to promote healing and clinical improvement. The epidural steroid injection involves placing steroid medication in the inflamed area and significantly reduces nerve irritation thus improving pain. This treatment option has the potential to completely resolve pain and ultimately may prevent operative treatment.
Steroids can have long-lasting and sometimes irreversible side effects on the body. Anabolic steroids have been linked to increased cholesterol, stroke and blood clots, urinary and bowel problems, and problems with the musculoskeletal system. Since steroids are a hormone, much like testosterone, the effects on sex characteristics can be far reaching, causing a kind of hyper-masculinity in young men. They can also cause male-pattern baldness and shrinking of the testicles. The excess of testosterone can also have feminizing effects on young men, such as breast development. (Jerry Adler, 2004)
2) Humans CAN kill animals for meat without tools, and have done so for hundreds of thousands of years. Certain bugs, eggs, ground birds, and shellfish have been on the human/hominoid menu long before complex tools. Same goes for large animals. Humans are proven to run large game to death under the right conditions, and it’s widely believed to be one of the keys to our species’ success. Persistence hunting without advanced tools is also the only accepted reason why humans are among the greatest long-distance runners on the planet. (We didn’t develop the anatomy to handle running 50+ miles if we were only gathering berries!) Research the Running Man Theory for more info.