Plants , most bacteria , and some protozoa such as malaria parasites have the ability to produce isoprenoids using an alternative pathway called the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) or non-mevalonate pathway .  The output of both the mevalonate pathway and the MEP pathway are the same, IPP and DMAPP, however the enzymatic reactions to convert acetyl-CoA into IPP are entirely different. In higher plants, the MEP pathway operates in plastids while the mevalonate pathway operates in the cytosol .  Examples of bacteria that contain the MEP pathway include Escherichia coli and pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis .
For example, an enlarged, hyperechoic liver is brighter than the spleen. This can be caused by steroid administration, diabetes, or several other diseases. If there are nodules or masses that are hypoechoic to normal liver, hyperechoic, or mixed, we know that there are focal lesions but not what they are. The description helps a reader to “see” the lesion, but may not be specific to a particular disease. A hypoechoic lesion could be benign liver hyperplasia, which is very common in older dogs, or a cancerous nodule. Certain patterns, such as a “target” lesion, are more associated with cancer. If the diagnosis is unclear after ultrasound, a fine needle aspirate or biopsy might be recommended to determine what the nodule is.