Research continued through the late 1930s and the 1940s surrounding Testosterone and its benefits and applications. Following World War II, the Soviet Union was the first nation to place a firm grasp on Testosterone and anabolic steroid use, and carry its research farther before any other country had caught on to the benefits of Testosterone use and its various applications. By grasping this head start, the Soviet Union could maintain a clear advantage in many different areas and did so for the most part during the late 1940s and 1950s. The primary and most popularly known area where this could be seen was that of the Olympics, where the Eastern Bloc and the Soviet Union were the first to use Testosterone to enhance the strength and performance of their Olympic athletes. The Cold War had been well underway by 1950, and it has been said that the struggle between the East and West during the Cold War for superiority in every arena was one of the primary driving factors for the development and application of anabolic steroids. The Soviet Union had dominated completely through the 1950s Olympic Games, especially in activities where strength had been a primary determining factor. American Olympic athletes were losing by an extreme margin to the Soviet athletes. It was during this time that the American government had intervened in an attempt to question the United States weight lifting team’s physicians as to why the Soviet athletes had such a gross advantage over the Americans. One doctor working for the US Olympic weight lifting team at this time was a doctor by the name of John Ziegler .
Amatör sporlarda ve vücut geliştirmede özellikle erkekler tarafından, profesyonel sporcularda ise hem erkekler hem de kadınlar tarafından tercih edilebilen steroid’lerin kullanımı, aslında teşvik edilen bir durum değildir. Profesyonel yarışmalarda ‘doping’ kullanımına dahil edilen ve kullanımı yasak olan steroid , bir besin takviyesi ya da ihtiyaç olarak algılanmaz. Yapay hormon takviyesi olarak değerlendirildiği için, vücut gelişimini sonlandıran, ve tamamen ilaçlara bağlı hale getiren bir maddedir. Bu nedenle belli bir yaşın altında olan ve vücut gelişimi halen devam eden sporcuların kullanması özellikle uzun vadeli sorunlar yaratır. İleri yaşlarda steroid alan kişilerde ise; prostat ve kalp büyümesi gibi daha farklı sorunlar görülebilmektedir. Ayrıca, yine sentetik olmasından dolayı, belirli bir süre steroid alan ve kas gelişmesi sağlayan kişiler, steroid kullanmayı bıraktıktan sonra gelişen kasları kaybederler, ve vücut normal metabolizmasına geri döner.